Hypatia was a philosopher and scientist who in the fourth century AD. taught mathematics, astronomy and philosophy at the then famous University of Alexandria, the Museion.
She has invented the astrolabe, with it the position of the stars, the planets and the sun can be determined.
Hatshepsut meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty.
According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed."
"Beloved of the god Ptah" c. 2700 BCE
Merit Ptah was an early physician in ancient Egypt. She is most notable for being the first woman known by name in the history of the field of medicine, and possibly the first named woman in all of science as well.
Her picture can be seen on a tomb in the necropolis near the step pyramid of Saqqara. Her son, who was a High Priest, described her as "the Chief Physician."
Co-Regent of upper and lower Egipt together with Echnaton at the time of the biggest revolution in the ancient egypt 1370 BCE – ca. 1330 BCE
Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc.
After Akhenaten death, Nefertiti ruled briefly as Pharaoh Smenkhkare.
Nefertiti (Beauty of Aten, the Beautiful one has come) is best known by the bust in limestone and gypsum, which is exhibited in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. The name bears the title of Great Royal Wife and mistress of the Two Lands.
In the grave of Akhenaten she appears as mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt.
After the death of Akhenaten Nefertiti rules as pharao Semenchkare.